Tobacco-free refers to a smoking prevalence of 5% or less. This report from the World Health Organization (WHO) focusses on protecting children from smoking and identifies tools and novel approaches that can help achieve tobacco-free status. It includes short case studies on addressing tobacco-related health inequalities in Scotland and on a Scottish project to reduce families exposure to second-hand smoke.
World Health Organization (2017) Tobacco-free generations: protecting children from tobacco in the WHO European Region, Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO.
The European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies have produced a report on assessing the economic costs of unhealthy diets and low physical activity. The study examines the evidence on the economic burden of these lifestyle characteristics and explores definitions of the terms and the complexity of estimating the economic burden. The review finds that existing studies underestimate the true economic burden by not including indirect costs. The study also tests the feasibility of using a disease-based approach to estimate the costs of unhealthy diets and low physical activity.
Candari, C.J., Cylus, J. and Nolte, E. (2017) ‘Assessing the economic costs of unhealthy diets and low physical activity: an evidence review and proposed framework’, WHO Health Policy Series No.47, Copenhagen, Denmark: European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.
The World Health Organization (WHO) have issued a step-by-step manual on health inequality monitoring methods. The manual is organised a flow-chart of a health inequality monitoring cycle detailing key questions, data checklists and analysis and reporting criteria.